Blue Energy Thermal Engine

The story of Blue Energy Thermal Engine

A heat engine invention which is capable of modulate heat energy at maximum efficiency level due to a dynamic lever system.

Initial research project

It all began when Blue Energy Science Technology tried to use compressed air as part of pumped hydro energy storage. What if we use compressed air to replace lower reservoir in a pumped hydro energy storage? When the electricity demand is low in the grid, the electricity will run compressor to make compressed air, which will store energy. When the grid needs more energy, the compressed air will pump water to a high altitude. The waterfall will come down to drive a turbine which then make the generator to produce electricity.

It looks like a good idea. But when the energy output was calculated, it is way too little comparing with the electricity energy used to produce compressed air. Why? What went wrong? This discovery lead to more findings.


The finding

Since James Watt introduced "Sun & Stars gear" into his steam engine to change reciprocation linear motion into rotational motion, his idea foreshadowed automobile solution even in the 21st century. While his idea is the innovation that provided the solutions for the transport from the land to the sea, we need to take a scientific examination in this innovation. A simplified drawing on the right demonstrates the crank device. Cylinder piston reciprocates along axis Y. Point O is the rotational centre. Y1 is the starting point for piston. Y2 represents the displacement of piston, which causes shaft centre O rotating an angle α. AY2 is the rod arm length. The radius of crankshaft is r. A simple math equation can be easily established:

Torque = (F*SIN(α)/L)*((1-((r*SIN(α))/L)^2))^0.5)*(r*COS(α))+(L^2-((r*SIN(α))^2))^0.5)

What does it mean for the engine performance?

The math

On the right is the mathmatic proof of crankshaft efficiency.

The energy waste due to crankshaft

According to above equation, what we can do is to find out how much the original force F will be converted into the torque force. The graphic shows that the torque output is a curve. When the angle is at 0 degree or 90 degrees, output T is zero. 

Obviousely crankshaft will distort the constant force into a curved force, which means a lot of energy will be lost.

Do NOT use turbine

This is a hard to explain topic in heat engine. Basically we can argue that the turbine design fails to comply with the first Law of thermodynamic, which "states that the total energy of an isolated system is constant; energy can be transformed from one form to another, but can be neither created nor destroyed." The condition of ISOLATED SYSTEM is what the turbine can not satisfy.(Wikipedia)

We might also take the famous ideal gas law equation PV=nRT to explain. When we apply this equation in heat engine design, if the turbine is used, the V factor is almost INFINITIVE due to the open gap in between the turbine blades. When the quantity of gas molecules n and its temperature T is initially constrained by a limited space V, turbine style heat engine would instantly open so much escape opportunity for air molecules through the turbine blades, which can't define the system boundary of gas expansion. It is impossible to make every gas molecule hitting one of the turbine blades before exiting. With such observation, a lot of energy is lost directly through the gap of turbine blades.

Can you try to pump a balloon with a fan? I would say no way. You can do this easily with a piston pump. Or you can simply blow it up with your mouth.


The non constant force

A piston engine relies on gas expansion to release fuel energy. In compression, energy is stored. It is well known that neither the compression force nor the expansion force is constant. So this will add more problem to the overall efficiency of a piston engine.

With the sketch on the right, we can see how this non constant force has un even energy distribution along the compression and expansion. The piston displacement from the picture illustrate the density of energy in the cylinder. When piston is more close to the red zone, the energy density will be higher. Going to the right, the piston will have weaker force. However, the right region takes up larger displacement. It is not a good energy distribution. You would want the high energy density displacement go longer distance.


  • An engine must have isolated environment in order to satisfy the First Law of Thermodynamic.
  • An engine can not use crankshaft in order to convert reciprocation motion into rotary motion.
  • An engine must have mechanism to make the high density air do more work.
  • An engine must have mechanism to make compression force correlated with the non constant force.

The BEST way to make a perfect heat engine

In order to make the heat engine satisfy all the conditions we have identified, Blue Energy Science Technology invented BETE.


The 3D presentation of BETE

BETE can resolve all the issues discovered in the energy storage project. It is a reciprocation engine. In order to avoid using the crankshaft, BETE has a dynamic lever system which works alternately by a pair of identical cylinders. One cylinder acts as compressor and another cylinder acts as expander. There are two pairs of such duel cylinders. The lever is a rigid metal bar which is controlled by a motor as the fulcrum to provide the leverage ratio. There are a few more components in BETE to make it work smoothly in each engine cycle. 

BETE is not just the engine to release heat energy, it is also a device to store energy. To compressed air efficiently, BETE is the breakthrough in energy storage. Producing liquid air would be the best option for short term energy storage.

Store liquid air is a game change business in the transition from fossil energy to renewable energy. With BETE, we can use renewable energy to actively separate CO2 out of the air when renewable energy is stored. With liquid air, people can enjoy airconditioning too. So BETE is a versatile machine.

BETE energy and medium flow chart

BETE has a lot of pontential. Its design follows the Law of thermodynamic. During its operation, BETE takes into account the emission reduction, pollution mitigation and integration with other renewable source as the energy storage component.

With all these features, mass deployment of BETE can change the global energy consumption in a positive way.

The trend of electric car must be paused. Battery is a low energy density way to store energy. It will distort the electricity grid due to the charging demand. If all the vehicles are using BETE, each vehicle can become a power station to supply electricity. BETE has the power to decentralise electricity grid.

BETE Patent

Patent received for Blue Energy Thermal Engine

Blue Energy Science Technology managed to apply a patent in Russia Federation in 2018. Here is the publication in WIPO.

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